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GOV PRE-DECLARATION



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 
 



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John Locke
The Patriots Declare Independence
Although most colonists found fault with the British army and British officeholders, they had feelings of loyalty to the king and were uncertain about the idea of independence. However, in the months following the Olive Branch Petition, colonial public opinion began to shift. 

THE IDEAS BEHIND THE REVOLUTION This shift in public opinion occurred because of a set of powerful ideas that spread throughout the colonies in the 1760s and 1770s. These ideas grew out of the European intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment.
Enlightenment thinkers stressed reason and logic, and they believed that humans could progress and develop a better society. One of the key Enlightenment thinkers was English philosopher John Locke.
Locke maintained that people have natural rights to life, liberty, and property. Furthermore, he contended, people willingly come together in a social contract-an agreement in which the people consent to choose and obey a government so long as it safe- - guards their natural rights. If the government violates that social contract by taking away or interfering with those rights, people have the right to resist and even overthrow the government. In addition to the philosophy of natural rights, colonial leaders who favored independence were influenced by traditions of liberty in past civilizations, particularly in the Greek city-state of Athens and in Rome. Both civilizations had traditions of individual liberty, and both developed forms of representative government. Other influences on colonial leaders who favored independence were religious traditions that supported the cause of liberty. One minister of the time, Jonathan Mayhew, wrote that he had learned from the holy scriptures that wise, brave, and virtuous men were always friends of liberty. Some ministers even spoke from their pulpits in favor of liberty.      
 

 1. 

Which statement below is true?
a.
Almost all Americans hated the King of England
c.
Most Americans agreed with the King of England and were opposed to the revolution
b.
Americans had mixed feelings about the King of England
d.
It was mostly the right people who wanted a revolution
 

 2. 

What was the name of the philosophy that stressed science and logic.
a.
Rationalism
c.
Enlightenment
b.
Communism
d.
Existentialism
 

 3. 

Totalitarian governments believe that people’s rights come from the state. Enlightenment thinkers believe that rights come from _____
a.
the government at birth
c.
other citizens
b.
god at birth
d.
democratic governments
 

 4. 

When people make an agreement with the government it is called
a.
a social contract
c.
a personal contract
b.
a pre-nuptial agreement
d.
rule by enlightenment
 

 5. 

What idea did the American colonists learn from the Greeks and Romans?
a.
absolute government
c.
socialism
b.
the balance of power
d.
representative government
 

 6. 

In colonial times, the idea of individual freedom was often preached in the churches.
a.
true
b.
false
 
 
THOMAS PAINE'S COMMON SENSE
Such lofty ideas were important in creating the atmosphere for revolution. Just as important, though, were the ideas of Thomas Paine. In a 47-page widely read pamphlet titled Common Sense, Paine attacked King George and the monarchy. Paine, a recent immigrant, argued that responsibility for British tyranny lay with "the royal brute of Britain." Paine explained that his own revolt against the king had begun with Lexington and Concord. Paine declared that the time had come for colonists to proclaim an independent republic. He argued that independence, which was the American "destiny," would allow America to trade freely with other nations for guns and ammunition and win foreign aid from British enemies. Finally, Paine stated, independence would give American colonists the chance to create a better society- one free from tyranny, with equal social and economic opportunities for all. Common Sense was widely read (some 500,000 copies were sold) and widely applauded. In April 1776, George Washington wrote, "I find Common Sense is working a powerful change in the minds of many men.


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 7. 

Thomas Paine saw King George of England as
a.
a democrat
c.
threat to freedom
b.
a republican
d.
threat to tyranny
 

 8. 

If we look at Thomas Paine as a soldier in the war against tyranny, his weapon would be
a.
a rifle
c.
his pen
b.
a canon
d.
his voice
 

 9. 

Thomas Paine argued that it was America’s destiny to be _____ .
a.
independent from Britain
c.
subjects of King George
b.
independent from France
d.
rulers of the continent
 

 10. 

“Common Sense” was a _____ written by Thomas Paine to arouse the colonists to take action against Britain.
a.
song
c.
pamphlet
b.
book
d.
colonial jingle
 

 11. 

According to Paine, what would give the colonists a chance to build a better life for its citizens?
a.
lower taxation
c.
independence
b.
no taxation
d.
closer ties with England
 
 
DECLARING INDEPENDENCE

In May 1776, events pushed the wavering; Continental Congress toward a decision. North Carolina had declared itself independent, and a majority of Virginians told their delegates that they favored independence. At last, the Congress urged each colony to form its own government. On June 7, Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee moved that "these United Colonies are, and of 'a right ought to he, free and independent States."

While talks on this fateful motion were under way, the Congress appointed a committee to prepare a formal declaration explaining the reasons for the colonies actions. Virginia lawyer Thomas Jefferson, known for his broad knowledge and skillfully crafted prose,was chosen to express the committee's points.

Jefferson's masterful Declaration of Independence drew on Locke's philosophy of natural rights. Jefferson referred to these rights as unalienable rights-ones that can never be taken away. He described these rights as "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness." In keeping with Locke's idea of a social contract, Jefferson then declared that governments derive their powers from the consent of the governed-that is, from the people. This consent gave the people the right "to alter or to abolish" any government that threatened their unalienable rights and to install a government that would uphold these principles. On the basis of this reasoning, the American  colonies declared their independence from Britain. The Declaration listed the numerous ways in which the British king had taken away the "unalienable rights" of the Americans.

The declaration states flatly that "all men are created equal."   Jefferson's words presented ideals that would later help all Americans, women and African Americans, to challenge traditional attitudes.

In his first draft, Jefferson included an eloquent attack on the cruelty and injustice of the slave trade. however, South Carolina and Georgia, the two colonies most dependent on slavery, objected. In order to gain the votes of those two states, Jefferson dropped the offending passage.

On July 2, 1776, the delegates voted unanimously that the American colonies were free, and on July 4, 1776, they adopted the Declaration of Independence. While delegates created a formal copy of the Declaration, the document was read to a crowd in front of the Philadelphia State house-now called Independence hall. A rush of pride and anxiety ran through the supporters of independence when they heard the closing vow: "We mutually pledge to each other our Lives,  our Fortunes, and our Sacred Honor."
 

 12. 

Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?
a.
George Washington
c.
Thomas Paine
b.
Thomas Jefferson
d.
Richard Henry Lee
 

 13. 

What state did the writer of the Declaration of Independence come from?
a.
Pennsylvania
c.
Virginia
b.
North Carolina
d.
Washington D.C.
 

 14. 

The ideas of which Enlightenment philosopher are found most often in the Declaration of Independence?
a.
Thomas Jefferson
c.
Thomas Paine
b.
Thomas Hobbs
d.
John Locke
 

 15. 

Which phrase from the Declaration of Independence did minorities use to eventually gain equality in the United States.
a.
“Give me Liberty or Give Me Death”
c.
“Independence Now”
b.
“All men are created equal”
d.
“Independence is America’s destiny”
 

 16. 

Which statement is true about Thomas Jefferson.
a.
He owned slaves and defended the practice of slavery.
c.
He thought slavery was evil and attempted to condemn it.
b.
He had no desire to challenge slavery
d.
He thought slavery was not an issue that the colonists should concern themselves with.
 

 17. 

How did Americans feel when they first heard the Declaration of Independence read to them?
a.
afraid but proud
c.
unafraid and proud
b.
angry
d.
unhappy and afraid
 

 18. 

Americans wanted to break with England but they did not go so far as to claim that the king had violated the colonists unalienable rights
a.
true
b.
false
 

 19. 

John Lockes idea of the “social contract” meant that.
a.
Government has the power to make contracts with the citizens
c.
The people could make contracts with each other (social) but not with the government.
b.
Government had the responsibility to enforce contracts
d.
Government only had the power given to by the people
 

 20. 

According to Enlightenment philosophy, ________
a.
people have a right to overthrow their government if it violates the rights of the people
c.
the democratic group is more important than the individual
b.
people have natural rights but they should never try to overthrow the government
d.
God has nothing to do with human rights
 

 21. 

unalienable rights means
a.
rights that are bestowed by God but can be taken away by the government
c.
aliens do not have the same rights as citizens
b.
rights that are bestowed by God and cannot be taken away by the government
d.
only the government can take away a citizens rights
 

 22. 

What event do we celebrate on the 4th of July?
a.
the adoption of the Constitution
c.
the end of the Revolutionary War
b.
the adoption of the Declaration of Independence
d.
the writing of the Declaration of Independence
 

 23. 

Which statement is true about the signers of the Declaration of Independence?
a.
they say the Declaration as a way for rich colonial leaders to get even richer
c.
the signers were cowards who wanted to avoid the wrath of the British army
b.
the signers were basically dishonorable people for going against the King of England
d.
the signers were idological people who offered to give everything they had, including their lives, for an idea.
 



 
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