Name: 
 

GOV CH 2-1 MAGNA CARTA



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 
 
Introduction

Although the American colonies were settled by people from many nations, most of the early American settlers came from England. The English colonists brought with them the
two principles limited government and representative government . These principles became important factors in forming the American political system . Also important were the works of English philosophers, as well as philosophers from other parts of Europe . Much of the political thought that has formed the way our nation governs itself originated in the theories of these philosophers .
 

 1. 

Which European country had the most influence on the early Americans?
a.
France
c.
Germany
b.
Great Britain
d.
Ireland
 

 2. 

What were the two main ideas brought to America from England?
a.
Limited government and representative government
c.
Communism and Socialism
b.
Absolute government and the monarchy
d.
Limited socialism and representative military rule
 
 
Limited Government
nar002-1.jpg
King John signs the Magna Carta
For a long period in English history, the king or queen had almost unlimited powers . This situation changed in 1215, when King John was forced by his nobles to sign the Magna Carta, or great charter.  This monumental document provided for trial by a jury of one's peers, or equals . It prohibited the taking of a person's life, liberty, and property except by the lawful judgment of that person's peers. The Magna Carta also forced the king to obtain the nobles' approval of any taxes he imposed on his royal subjects . Government became a contract between the king and the nobility.

The Magna Carta's importance to England cannot be overemphasized. It clearly established the principle of limited government-government on which strict limits are placed, usually by a constitution. Hence, the Magna Carta ended the monarch's absolute power. It is true that the rights provided under the Magna Carta originally applied only to the nobility. Eventually, however, these rights would be extended to all individuals in England and in the United States
 

 3. 

What was the main political principle of the Magna Carta?
a.
Jury trials by peers
c.
The government cannot tax without the consent of the people
b.
The government needs to pass a law before it can deprive people of their life, liberty or property
d.
Government was a contract between the people and the government
 

 4. 

Which statement is true?
a.
The Magna Carta only applies only to rich nobility
c.
The Magna Carta applied only to the nobility at first but later included everyone, rich and poor
b.
In 1215 the Magna Carta applied to poor people and the nobility
d.
The ideas of the Magna Carta no longer apply to the modern world
 

 5. 

Who signed the Magna Carta and when was it signed?
a.
1215 King John
c.
1200 King Arthur
b.
1066 King John
d.
1215 King Magna Carta
 

 6. 

Who forced the king to sign the Magna Carta?
a.
the nobles
c.
the Senate
b.
the common people
d.
the military generals
 
 

nar003-1.jpg

English Bill of Rights

The principle of limited government was expanded in 1628, when King Charles I was forced to sign the Petition of Rights . Among other things, this petition prohibited the king from imprisoning political critics without a jury trial. Perhaps more importantly, the petition declared that even the king or queen had to obey the law of the land. Later, King Charles I was beheaded by Oliver Cromwell for defying Parliament.

In 1689, the English government passed the English Bill of Rights, which further extended the concept of limited government. Several important ideas were included in this document:      

The king or queen could not interfere with parliamentary elections .
The king or queen had to have Parliament's approval to collect taxes or to maintain an army.
The king or queen ruled with the consent of the people's representatives in Parliament.
The people could not be subjected to cruel or unusual punishment or to excessive fines.

The British colonists in North America were also British citizens, and so they were familiar with the English Bill of Rights of 1689. Because of this, almost all the major concepts in the English Bill of Rights became part of the American system of government and the constitutions of most of the state governments.
 

 7. 

What was the main idea of the English Bill of Rights?
a.
that people deserved Social welfare programs
c.
that the king is an absolute ruler
b.
that there are limitations on the power of the government
d.
that only common people should serve in government
 

 8. 

Which part of government had its power increased under the rule of Charles I?
a.
the court system
c.
the administrative part of the government
b.
the law making bodies
d.
local government
 

 9. 

Which statement is true?
a.
Most Americans ignored the English Bill of Rights
c.
The English Bill of Rights were made a part of the laws of each of the colonies
b.
Most Americans knew about the English Bill of Rights but thought its freedoms were unattainable
d.
The English Bill of Rights only applied to rich people in America and England
 
 
Representative Government
nar004-1.jpg

The Romans had senators who represented them in the Roman Senate. A representative government is one in which the people choose a limited number of individuals to make governmental decisions for all citizens . Those chosen by the citizens are called representatives. Usually, each representative is elected to office for a specific period of time .

In England, this group of representatives is called Parliament. Parliament consists of an upper chamber, called the House of Lords, and a lower chamber, called the House of Commons. In the eighteenth century, the House of Commons was mostly made up of merchants and property owners, and its members were elected by other merchants and property owners. Thus, in England, the concept of government by and for the people had become reality. The English system became a model by which the American colonies would govern themselves.
 

 10. 

What is representative government?
a.
Government where Kings and Queens represent the wishes of the people
c.
Government where representatives are appointed for life to supply goods and services to citizens
b.
Government where individuals are elected to represent the rest of the people
d.
Government where only rich people are represented
 

 11. 

What is the House of Commons?
a.
a law making body where members are appointed for life
c.
a law making body to which members are elected by the people of England
b.
a place where the common people of England can go for welfare
d.
a place in England where common law is practiced for common people
 

 12. 

What kind of government was the Roman Senate?
a.
pure democracy
c.
representative government
b.
dictatorship
d.
military dictatorship
 
 
Early Philosophical Influences
nar005-1.jpg
John Locke
nar005-2.jpg
Thomas Hobbes
nar005-3.jpg
Jean-Jacques
Rousseau
nar005-4.jpgBaron of Montesquieu

Europeans were looking at the world in new ways in the 1600s and 1700s. One area of change was political philosophy, which involves ideas about how people should be governed. Political philosophers questioned such traditional doctrines as the divine right theory of  government. The new ideas they proposed greatly influenced American colonists . In fact, as you will see, the ideas of these philosophers are clearly embodied in the U.S. Constitution and other documents that outline the American philosophy of government. Influential European political philosophers included John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Charles de Secondat, the Baron of Montesquieu

English philosopher John Locke argued that no one could be subjected to the political power of another without his own consent . Why was this such a radical concept in 1689?
 

 13. 

What can we infer about the American colonists who wrote the U.S. Constitution?
a.
they were opposed to political philosophy because most of the philosophers were English
c.
they got there ideas about government from the French Revolution
b.
they were thoughtful educated people who were interested in ideas
d.
they were mostly uneducated people who relied on their instincts for ideas
 

 14. 

What did John Locke believe about government?
a.
he believed in the “divine right of kings”
c.
society is more important than any individual in it
b.
people had a duty to society to obey the government
d.
government only has the authority given to it by the people
 
 
Locke, Hobbes, Rousseau, and the Social Contract

It may seem obvious to you that any government should have the consent of the governed-that is, their permission and agreement. This notion, however, was still very new and revolutionary in the 1600s. An important English political philosopher,
John Locke (1632-1704), wrote about this issue in Two Treatises of Government in 1689 . He argued that "no one could be subjected to the political power of another, without his own consent." Government, therefore, was only legitimate as long as the people continued to consent to it.

Locke further argued that all persons were born free, equal, and independent . All persons had natural rights to life, liberty, and property-rights that everyone possessed even before governments existed . He held that the primary purpose of government was to protect those natural rights, and he believed that government was really a social contract between the people and their government.

Locke theorized that before governments existed, people lived in "a state of nature" in which they had unlimited freedom and the right to do as they wished. In this respect, he agreed with an earlier English philosopher, Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) . Hobbes also discussed the "state of nature" in which people lived before governments were established. In contrast to Locke, however, Hobbes argued that this situation led to chaos and violence because the weak could not protect themselves against the strong. There were no natural rights . Rather, rights could be won only through force. Life in this "free" state of nature, therefore, was "nasty, brutish, and short."
 

 15. 

Who would be likely to argue that political rights come from God?
a.
Thomas Hobbs
c.
both Hobbs and Locke
b.
John Locke
d.
neither Hobbs nor Locke
 

 16. 

Which philosopher had a more negative view of human nature?
a.
Locke
c.
both Locke and Hobbs
b.
Hobbs
d.
neither Locke nor Hobbs
 

 17. 

What was John Locke likely to argue about property?
a.
The right to own property is just as important as the right to freedom and happiness
c.
Property rights are given to people from the government so they can be free and happy
b.
There is no right to property if it interferes with happiness
d.
The group is more important than the individual
 

 18. 

When did the “state of nature” exist for people?
a.
as a result of government
c.
before governments existed
b.
in spite of the government
d.
there never was such a time
 
 
Hobbs and Rousseau

Hobbes published his landmark political study Leviathan in 1651 . In it, he said that
human beings had voluntarily agreed to create a powerful government in order to gain security and safety. In exchange, they gave up the freedom to do as they chose in the state of nature. They therefore owed their complete loyalty to the government that protected them. Hobbes believed that a government in which a ruler had absolute authority would end the conflicts waged in the natural state. Only then would people enjoy rights, such as the right to life, liberty, or property. Few political thinkers agreed that the individual owed total loyalty to the government. Although Hobbes's writings supported the concept of monarchy, they also contributed to the growing idea that government was based on a negotiated agreement between the rulers and the ruled, rather than on raw force and power.

Like Hobbes and Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), a French political philosopher, believed that people had once lived in a state of nature and freedom. Since then, though, many people had come under the control of unjust rulers who ruled at the expense of their citizens' personal freedom . In The Social Contract, published in 1762, Rousseau wrote, "Man is born free, yet everywhere he is found in chains." Rousseau was referring to the large number of people on the European continent living under oppressive governments. He argued that people alone had the right to determine how they should be governed . He proposed that because all human beings in a state of nature were born free, the main duty of government should be to maintain as much freedom as possible in a civilized society. This could be accomplished by allowing each person to have a say in decision making. At the same time, each person would have to agree to submit to the "will" of the majority.
 

 19. 

Who is likely to argue that people are basically evil and a strong government is needed to control them?
a.
Thomas Hobbs
c.
Jean Rousseau
b.
John Locke
d.
none of these would argue that idea
 

 20. 

Modern Liberals believe government should be big and strong to provide help to individuals. Modern Conservatives believe that government should be as small so as not to take away the freedom of the people. If Hobbs lived today, what would he likely be?
a.
Conservative
c.
neither Conservative nor Liberal
b.
Liberal
d.
there is no way to tell
 

 21. 

Who argued that man is by nature born free?
a.
Hobbs
c.
both Hobbs and Rousseau
b.
Rousseau
d.
neither Hobbs nor Rousseau
 

 22. 

Which statement is true?
a.
Both Hobbs and Rousseau were dissatisfied with the governments of their times
c.
Hobbs was dissatisfied with the governments of his time, Rousseau was not
b.
Neither Hobbs nor Rousseau were dissatisfied with the governments of their times
d.
Rousseau was dissatisfied with he governments of his time, Hobbs was not.
 
 
Montesquieu and the Separation of Powers

A French political philosopher, Charles de Secondat, the Baron of Montesquieu (1689-1755), was the first political writer to discuss
dividing government into three separate branches with different duties and the ability to act as a check on each other's power. In his book The Spirit of the Laws, published in 1748, Montesquieu pointed out that no one person in the English government was allowed to make the laws, enforce the laws, and interpret the laws. This partial separation of governmental responsibilities helped to prevent the abuse of power and to protect the liberties of English people. The framers of our Constitution not only agreed with Montesquieu, but also went even further. They wanted to ensure that the American form of government had an even more distinct separation of powers. In this way, they hoped that liberty would be safer in the United States than in England.
 

 23. 

Why did Baron of Montesquieu want the government to be divided into separate parts?
a.
so each part can concentrate on its area of  responsibility
c.
so the government can remain weak and ineffective
b.
so the government can acquire the power necessary to do its job
d.
so each part can check the power of the other parts
 

 24. 

What did the framers of our constitution do about the ideas of Baron Montesquieu?
a.
They ignored them
c.
They incorporated them into the U.S. Constitution
b.
They accepted them but only in part
d.
They did nothing about his ideas, even though they might have agreed with him
 

Multiple Response
Identify one or more choices that best complete the statement or answer the question.
 
 
Montesquieu and the Separation of Powers

A French political philosopher, Charles de Secondat, the Baron of Montesquieu (1689-1755), was the first political writer to discuss
dividing government into three separate branches with different duties and the ability to act as a check on each other's power. In his book The Spirit of the Laws, published in 1748, Montesquieu pointed out that no one person in the English government was allowed to make the laws, enforce the laws, and interpret the laws. This partial separation of governmental responsibilities helped to prevent the abuse of power and to protect the liberties of English people. The framers of our Constitution not only agreed with Montesquieu, but also went even further. They wanted to ensure that the American form of government had an even more distinct separation of powers. In this way, they hoped that liberty would be safer in the United States than in England.
 

 25. 

What two ideas did Montesquieu discuss in “The Spirit of the Laws?” (pick 2)
 a.
consolidating power in one branch of government
 c.
creating a government that could check its own power
 b.
creating a bi-cameral legislature
 d.
dividing governmental power between branches
 

Short Answer
 
 
Introduction

Although the American colonies were settled by people from many nations, most of the early American settlers came from England. The English colonists brought with them the
two principles limited government and representative government . These principles became important factors in forming the American political system . Also important were the works of English philosophers, as well as philosophers from other parts of Europe . Much of the political thought that has formed the way our nation governs itself originated in the theories of these philosophers .
 

 26. 

What is the main idea of the reading above?
 
 
Limited Government
nar002-1.jpg
King John signs the Magna Carta
For a long period in English history, the king or queen had almost unlimited powers . This situation changed in 1215, when King John was forced by his nobles to sign the Magna Carta, or great charter.  This monumental document provided for trial by a jury of one's peers, or equals . It prohibited the taking of a person's life, liberty, and property except by the lawful judgment of that person's peers. The Magna Carta also forced the king to obtain the nobles' approval of any taxes he imposed on his royal subjects . Government became a contract between the king and the nobility.

The Magna Carta's importance to England cannot be overemphasized. It clearly established the principle of limited government-government on which strict limits are placed, usually by a constitution. Hence, the Magna Carta ended the monarch's absolute power. It is true that the rights provided under the Magna Carta originally applied only to the nobility. Eventually, however, these rights would be extended to all individuals in England and in the United States
 

 27. 

What is the main idea of this reading?           
 
 

nar003-1.jpg

English Bill of Rights

The principle of limited government was expanded in 1628, when King Charles I was forced to sign the Petition of Rights . Among other things, this petition prohibited the king from imprisoning political critics without a jury trial. Perhaps more importantly, the petition declared that even the king or queen had to obey the law of the land. Later, King Charles I was beheaded by Oliver Cromwell for defying Parliament.

In 1689, the English government passed the English Bill of Rights, which further extended the concept of limited government. Several important ideas were included in this document:      

The king or queen could not interfere with parliamentary elections .
The king or queen had to have Parliament's approval to collect taxes or to maintain an army.
The king or queen ruled with the consent of the people's representatives in Parliament.
The people could not be subjected to cruel or unusual punishment or to excessive fines.

The British colonists in North America were also British citizens, and so they were familiar with the English Bill of Rights of 1689. Because of this, almost all the major concepts in the English Bill of Rights became part of the American system of government and the constitutions of most of the state governments.
 

 28. 

What is the main idea of this reading?
 
 
Representative Government
nar004-1.jpg

The Romans had senators who represented them in the Roman Senate. A representative government is one in which the people choose a limited number of individuals to make governmental decisions for all citizens . Those chosen by the citizens are called representatives. Usually, each representative is elected to office for a specific period of time .

In England, this group of representatives is called Parliament. Parliament consists of an upper chamber, called the House of Lords, and a lower chamber, called the House of Commons. In the eighteenth century, the House of Commons was mostly made up of merchants and property owners, and its members were elected by other merchants and property owners. Thus, in England, the concept of government by and for the people had become reality. The English system became a model by which the American colonies would govern themselves.
 

 29. 

What is the main idea of this reading?
 
 
Early Philosophical Influences
nar005-1.jpg
John Locke
nar005-2.jpg
Thomas Hobbes
nar005-3.jpg
Jean-Jacques
Rousseau
nar005-4.jpgBaron of Montesquieu

Europeans were looking at the world in new ways in the 1600s and 1700s. One area of change was political philosophy, which involves ideas about how people should be governed. Political philosophers questioned such traditional doctrines as the divine right theory of  government. The new ideas they proposed greatly influenced American colonists . In fact, as you will see, the ideas of these philosophers are clearly embodied in the U.S. Constitution and other documents that outline the American philosophy of government. Influential European political philosophers included John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Charles de Secondat, the Baron of Montesquieu

English philosopher John Locke argued that no one could be subjected to the political power of another without his own consent . Why was this such a radical concept in 1689?
 

 30. 

What is the main idea of this reading?
 
 
Locke, Hobbes, Rousseau, and the Social Contract

It may seem obvious to you that any government should have the consent of the governed-that is, their permission and agreement. This notion, however, was still very new and revolutionary in the 1600s. An important English political philosopher,
John Locke (1632-1704), wrote about this issue in Two Treatises of Government in 1689 . He argued that "no one could be subjected to the political power of another, without his own consent." Government, therefore, was only legitimate as long as the people continued to consent to it.

Locke further argued that all persons were born free, equal, and independent . All persons had natural rights to life, liberty, and property-rights that everyone possessed even before governments existed . He held that the primary purpose of government was to protect those natural rights, and he believed that government was really a social contract between the people and their government.

Locke theorized that before governments existed, people lived in "a state of nature" in which they had unlimited freedom and the right to do as they wished. In this respect, he agreed with an earlier English philosopher, Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) . Hobbes also discussed the "state of nature" in which people lived before governments were established. In contrast to Locke, however, Hobbes argued that this situation led to chaos and violence because the weak could not protect themselves against the strong. There were no natural rights . Rather, rights could be won only through force. Life in this "free" state of nature, therefore, was "nasty, brutish, and short."
 

 31. 

How were the ideas of Locke different from those of Hobbs?
 
 
Hobbs and Rousseau

Hobbes published his landmark political study Leviathan in 1651 . In it, he said that
human beings had voluntarily agreed to create a powerful government in order to gain security and safety. In exchange, they gave up the freedom to do as they chose in the state of nature. They therefore owed their complete loyalty to the government that protected them. Hobbes believed that a government in which a ruler had absolute authority would end the conflicts waged in the natural state. Only then would people enjoy rights, such as the right to life, liberty, or property. Few political thinkers agreed that the individual owed total loyalty to the government. Although Hobbes's writings supported the concept of monarchy, they also contributed to the growing idea that government was based on a negotiated agreement between the rulers and the ruled, rather than on raw force and power.

Like Hobbes and Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), a French political philosopher, believed that people had once lived in a state of nature and freedom. Since then, though, many people had come under the control of unjust rulers who ruled at the expense of their citizens' personal freedom . In The Social Contract, published in 1762, Rousseau wrote, "Man is born free, yet everywhere he is found in chains." Rousseau was referring to the large number of people on the European continent living under oppressive governments. He argued that people alone had the right to determine how they should be governed . He proposed that because all human beings in a state of nature were born free, the main duty of government should be to maintain as much freedom as possible in a civilized society. This could be accomplished by allowing each person to have a say in decision making. At the same time, each person would have to agree to submit to the "will" of the majority.
 

 32. 

What was similar about the ideas of Hobbs and Rousseau?
 
 
Montesquieu and the Separation of Powers

A French political philosopher, Charles de Secondat, the Baron of Montesquieu (1689-1755), was the first political writer to discuss
dividing government into three separate branches with different duties and the ability to act as a check on each other's power. In his book The Spirit of the Laws, published in 1748, Montesquieu pointed out that no one person in the English government was allowed to make the laws, enforce the laws, and interpret the laws. This partial separation of governmental responsibilities helped to prevent the abuse of power and to protect the liberties of English people. The framers of our Constitution not only agreed with Montesquieu, but also went even further. They wanted to ensure that the American form of government had an even more distinct separation of powers. In this way, they hoped that liberty would be safer in the United States than in England.
 

 33. 

Explain “Separation of powers”
 



 
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