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GOV CH 2-6 RATIFYING THE CONST

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 
 
RATIFYING THE CONSTITUTION

The delegates' approval of the Constitution did not mean that the Constitution was put into effect automatically. It had to be ratified-approved-by a majority of the states. The delegates to the convention agreed that each state should hold its own convention at which elected representatives would discuss and vote on the Constitution. The delegates also agreed that as soon as nine states approved the Constitution, it would take effect. Congress would then begin to organize the new government.

The Battle Lines Are Drawn-Federalists versus Anti-Federalists

Ratifying the Constitution involved a tough battle, fought chiefly by two opposing groups. Those who favored a strong central government and the new Constitution were called Federalists. Those who opposed ratification were called Anti-Federalists. A national debate of unprecedented size arose between these two groups over the ratification issue.
 

 1. 

Who needed to approve the constitution before it could take effect?
a.
the Federalists
c.
the Anti-Federalists
b.
the congress
d.
the states
 

 2. 

The _______ were those who wanted a strong national government and the _____ were those who wanted strong state governments and a weaker national government.
a.
anti-Federalists - Federalists
b.
Federalists - anti-Federalists
 

 3. 

How many states were required to ratify (approve) the new constitution?
a.
13
c.
11
b.
9
d.
10
 
 
The Federalists

The Federalists had several advantages. In the first place, they adopted a positive name, leaving their opposition with a negative label. The Federalists had also attended the Constitutional Convention and knew about all of the discussions that had taken place. The Anti-Federalists had no actual knowledge of those discussions, which had been closed to the public. Thus, they were at a disadvantage. The Federalists also had time, money, and prestige on their side. Their impressive list of political thinkers and writers included Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison. Federalists could communicate with each other more easily, because they were mostly bankers, lawyers, and merchants who lived in urban areas, where communication was better. The Federalists organized a quick and effective campaign to make sure that Federalists were elected as delegates to each state's ratifying convention. During that campaign, the Federalists published a series of papers collectively known as the
Federalist Papers.
 

 4. 

What is the main idea of the selection above.
a.
no group had a clear advantage over the other in the campaign to get the constitution ratified.
c.
because of experience and better organization, the Federalists had an advantage over the anti-Federalists
b.
the Federalists were from the upper classes and the anti-Federalists were from the poor working class
d.
the Federalists had an unfair advantage over the anti-Federalists
 

 5. 

From the Federalist passage we can infer that the “Federalist Papers” ........
a.
were arguments in favor of the new constitution
c.
did not relate to the constitution
b.
were arguments against the new constitution
d.
were logical arguments that tried to present both sides of the issue
 
 
The Federalist Papers

Alexander Hamilton, a leading Federalist, started answering critics of the Constitution in New York by writing newspaper columns. He used the signature "Caesar." When the Caesar letters appeared to have little effect, Hamilton switched his signature to "Publius." He also had John Jay and James Madison help him write more columns. In a period of less than a year, the three men wrote a series of eightyfive essays in defense of the Constitution. These essays were printed in New York newspapers, as well as in other papers throughout the states. Hamilton was responsible for about two-thirds of the essays, but Madison and Jay made important contributions. Madison's Federalist Paper No. 10 is considered a classic in political theory. It deals with the nature of interest groups, or factions, as he called them.
 

 6. 

Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison were .....
a.
non-partisan
c.
Democrats
b.
anti-Federalists
d.
Federalists
 

 7. 

We can infer from the passage that the writers of the Federalist papers were .....
a.
ordinary working people
c.
well educated professionals
b.
college professors
d.
scientists
 

 8. 

Which Federalist Paper deals with political factions (interest groups) and political theory? It is the most famous of the Federalist Papers.
a.
the Bill of Rights
c.
Federalist one to ten
b.
Federalist 10
d.
the Declaration of Independence
 
 
The Anti-Federalists Respond

The major advantage of the Anti-Federalists was that they stood for the status quo-the way things were at the time. Usually, those who favor change face a more difficult task than those who favor staying with what is already known and understood. The Anti-Federalists published replies to the Federalists, using the names "Montezuma" and "Phi lade lphiensis." They also wrote brilliantly, attacking nearly every part of the new document. Many contended that the Constitution was written by aristocrats and would lead the nation to aristocratic tyranny. The Anti-Federalists argued that the Constitution would create an overly powerful central government that would limit personal freedom. The Anti-Federalists' strongest argument, however, was that the Constitution lacked a bill of rights. They warned that without a bill of rights, a strong national government might take away the political rights won during the American Revolution. They demanded that the new Constitution clearly guarantee personal freedoms

Among the Anti-Federalists were such patriots as Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams. They argued in favor of what, in fact, was the leading view of the time. In this view, personal liberty was only safe in small societies governed either by direct democracy or by a large legislature with small districts. In contrast, many of the Federalist Papers argued a position that was unpopular at the time. As Patrick Henry said of the proposed Constitution, "I look upon that paper as the most fatal plan that could possibly be conceived to enslave a free people."

 

 9. 

The Anti Federalists did not want the new constitution to be ratified
a.
false
b.
true
 

 10. 

The _____ were more interested in personal freedoms. The _____ believed you could not have personal freedoms without a strong national government to protect them.
a.
Federalists - Anti-Federalists
c.
Federalists - Federalists
b.
Anti-Federalists - Anti-Federalists
d.
Anti-Federalists - Federalists
 

 11. 

The Anti-Federalists argued that freedom was best preserved in _____ governments.
a.
small
c.
status quo
b.
large
d.
aristocratic
 

 12. 

What was the strongest argument that the Anti-Federalists had?
a.
that the constitution preserved the status quo
c.
that the Constitution had no Bill of Rights
b.
that the Constitution had too many rights for rich people
d.
that the constitution was written too fast
 

 13. 

From what we know about the Anti-Federalists, we can infer that they
a.
trusted big government
c.
did not trust any government
b.
did not trust military control of the government
d.
trusted big government if it was held in check by a strong president
 
 
The Constitution Is Ratified

To gain support, the Federalists finally promised to add a bill of rights to the Constitution as the first order of business under the new government. This promise turned the tide in favor of the Constitution. The contest for ratification was close in several states, but the Federalists finally won in all of them.

Ratification of the Constitution was unanimously approved in Delaware, New Jersey, and Georgia. Pennsylvania voted in favor of ratification by a margin of two to one and Connecticut by three to one. Even though the Anti- Federalists were perhaps the majority in Massachusetts, a brilliant political campaign by the Federalists led to ratification on February 6, 1788. On June 21, 1788, by a margin of fifty-seven to forty-six, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify. Thus, the Constitution was formally put into effect. Virginia ratified on June 25, 1788, and New York on July 26, 1788. North Carolina ratified on November 21 of the following year, and Rhode Island waited until May 29, 1790, after the new government had taken office.
 

 14. 

What is the main idea of the passage above.
a.
The constitution was narrowly ratified and left the country disunited
c.
Rhode Island was the last state to ratify the constitution
b.
The states on the East Coast were the first to ratify the new constitution
d.
In the end the country was pretty much unified behind the new constitution
 

 15. 

The public demand for a Bill of Rights shows that the American people
a.
are not sure what their rights are
c.
are more concerned with public rights than private rights.
b.
needs to know the government cares for them
d.
do not trust big governments
 
 
The New Government Begins
On September 13, 1788, the Congress of the Confederation chose New York City as the temporary capital. On March 4, 1789, the new Congress convened in Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York City. On April 6, George Washington was elected the first president of the United States by a unanimous vote. His vice president, John Adams, was also elected. The first oath of office by a president of this country was taken on April 30 in New York City.

It is impossible to know for sure how far ahead the framers of the Constitution were looking when they met in Philadelphia. We can imagine, though, that they never dreamed that over two hundred years later, the U.S. Constitution would be the oldest living document of its type in the world. Nor is it likely that the first elected officials under the Constitution understood the truly global significance of what happened when they took office.

Through the years, the political system of democracy and the freedoms enjoyed by Americans have become the standard by which other countries measure themselves. At last count, the U.S. Constitution has been imitated by over 170 countries. We have seen such imitation most recently in the 1990s, as nations that were formerly part of the Soviet Union set up new governments. New democracies in Eastern Europe have almost -exclusively imitated the U.S. Constitution.
 

 16. 

What is the main idea of the passage above
a.
the Constitution is copied in Eastern Europe
c.
the Founding Fathers knew that the Constitution would be famous some day
b.
the U.S. Constitution has become the model for free governments throughout the world
d.
the Constitution is the oldest document of its type in the world.
 

 17. 

The U.S. Constitution is proof that God has blessed America.
a.
true
b.
false
 

 18. 

Where was the first capital of the United States?
a.
New York
c.
Philadelphia
b.
Boston
d.
Washington D.C.
 



 
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