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GOV CH 2-4 ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 
 
Definitions
The executive branch of government is the president. The president is the chief executive.
The legislative branch of government is the congress. It is the place where the laws are made.
The judicial branch is the court system. It is the place that runs the courts and makes decisions.
From Colonies to States

A constitution is a set of laws that a state or government uses to run their state or government. In May 1776, the Second Continental Congress directed the colonies to form "such governments as shall . . . be conducive to the happiness and safety of their constituents [voters]." During the next several years, all thirteen states for constitutions to replace their colonial constitutions. Eleven of these constitutions were completely new. The other two, those of Rhode Island and Connecticut, were old royal charters with minor changes. Seven of the new constitutions contained bills of rights that defined the personal liberties of all state citizens. All the constitutions called for Limited government.

Many citizens feared the establishment of a strong central government because of their experiences under British rule. They opposed any form of government that even seemed like monarchy. Thus, they did not favor government by a strong executive authority-a person with wide-reaching administrative powers. They preferred to place government in the hands of an elected legislative body. Where citizens were most strongly opposed to monarchy, the legislatures became all-powerful. The legislatures of Pennsylvania and Georgia were unchecked by executive authority. Indeed, the executive branch was weak in most states. This situation would continue until the U.S. Constitution was ratified
 

 1. 

Which branch of government does President Obama belong to?
a.
executive
c.
judicial
b.
legislative
d.
as president he belongs to all three
 

 2. 

By reading this passage we can infer that
a.
most colonists trusted the executives more than the legislatures
c.
most colonists wanted a strong court system to control a reckless legislature
b.
most colonists trusted the legislatures more than the executives
d.
the judicial and executive branches were stronger than the legislatures in 1776
 

 3. 

Parliament is to congress as a king is to
a.
a judge
c.
George III
b.
a president
d.
the church
 
 
The Articles of Confederation
The colonists' fear of a strong central government influenced the thinking of the delegates to the Second Continental Congress. A committee named by the congress to draft a plan for a national government drew up a plan for a confederation-a voluntary association of independent states. In a confederation, the member states agree to let the central government undertake a limited number of activities, such as forming an army. But the member states do not allow many restrictions on their own actions. They typically can govern most state affairs as they see fit.

On November 15, 1777, the Second Continental Congress agreed on a draft of the plan, which was finally signed by all thirteen states on March 1, 1781. The Articles of Confederation, the result of this plan, served as this nation's first national constitution. In spite of serious weaknesses, the Articles represented an important step in the creation of our governmental system.
 

 4. 

Under the Articles of Confederation, where did most of the power reside?
a.
with the central government
c.
with the states
b.
with the people
d.
power was distributed evenly
 

 5. 

What is the main idea of the passage above.
a.
the Articles of Confederation were created in the Second Continental Congress
c.
The Articles were signed in 1781
b.
the Articles of Confederation were an important step in the creation of our government.
d.
There is no clear central idea to this passage
 
 
The Government of the Confederation
Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was the central governing body for all the states. This body was an assembly of ambassadors, as they were called, from the various states. Each state could send from two to seven ambassadors to the congress; but each state, no matter what its size, had only one vote. Sovereignty was an important issue in the Articles of Confederation: Each State retains its sovereignty, freedom and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated to the United States in Congress assembled
 

 6. 

What was the most important issue in the Articles of confederation?
a.
money and taxes
c.
the creation of an army
b.
sovereignty of the states
d.
parliaments treatment of the colonies
 

 7. 

Which word comes closest to the meaning of the word, sovereignty?
a.
faithful
c.
weak
b.
religious
d.
independence
 

 8. 

In a confederation, the states are more powerful than the central government. That is one of the main issues in government today, who is to have the power, the states or the central government. This statement is
a.
true
b.
false
 
 
The Powers of Congress under the Articles
Congress had several powers under the Articles of Confederation, including the powers to do the following:
·      Enter into treaties and alliances.
·      Establish and control armed forces.
·      Declare war and make peace.
·      Regulate coinage (but not paper money).
·      Borrow money from the people.
·      Create a postal system.
·      Regulate Indian affairs.
·      Set standards of weights and measures.
·      Create courts for problems related to ships at sea.
·      Settle disputes between the states under certain circumstances.
·      Guarantee that citizens visiting other states would have the same rights and privileges as the state's residents.
 

 9. 

Under the Articles of Confederation, Pennsylvania could treat the people of New York differently than its own people
a.
true
b.
false
 

 10. 

Under the Articles of Confederation Congress had power over _____
a.
Great Britain
c.
the Supreme Court
b.
all the states
d.
France
 

 11. 

Which is not a power that congress had under the Articles of Confederation?
a.
create a post office system
c.
control the Indians
b.
say the weight of an ounce
d.
regulate paper money
 

 12. 

Under the Articles of Confederation, New York could join with France to fight a war with Spain
a.
true
b.
false
 
 
Under the Articles, the Congress of the Confederation accomplished a number of things.

Certain states' claims to western lands were settled with the Northwest Ordinance. This law established a basic pattern for how states should govern new territories north of the Ohio River. Additionally, and perhaps most importantly, the United States under the Articles of Confederation won the Revolutionary War. Congress was then able to negotiate a peace treaty with Great Britain, the Treaty of Paris, which was signed in 1783. Under the treaty, Britain recognized American independence. Britain also granted the United States all of the territory from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River and from the Great Lakes and Canada to what is now northern Florida.

The Articles of Confederation were, in a sense, an unplanned experiment that tested some of the principles of government set forth earlier in the Declaration of Independence. Some argue that without the experience of government under the Articles of Confederation, it would have been difficult, if not impossible, to arrive at the compromises that were put into the Constitution several years later.
 

 13. 

What is the main idea of the passage above?
a.
the Articles of Confederation did some important things and were an important first step in creating our government
c.
the Northwest Ordinance was the most important accomplishment of the government under the Articles of Confederation
b.
the states should have had more power under the Articles of Confederation
d.
the Treaty of Paris was the most important accomplishment of the government under the Articles of Confederation
 

 14. 

When the colonists were fighting Great Britain in the Revolutionary war, what set of laws were used to govern the colonies?
a.
the Constitution of the U.S.
c.
the Articles of Confederation
b.
the Declaration of Independence
d.
the Treaty of Paris
 
 
Weaknesses of the Government of the Confederation
In spite of its accomplishments, the government created by the Articles was weak. Because of its lack of power, the central government had a difficult time coping with the problems that the growing nation was facing. The Articles of Confederation also had other major weaknesses. These weaknesses stemmed from the fact that the government under the Articles was made up of independent states that had no intention of giving up their sovereignty. Much of the functioning of the government under the Articles depended on the goodwill of the states. Article 3, for example, simply established a "league of friendship" among the states, with no central government intended
 

 15. 

The main weakness of the Articles of Confederation was that
a.
the central government had too much power
c.
the states had too little power
b.
the central government did not have enough power
d.
the kind retained too much power over the colonies
 
 
 
Weakness of Articles of ConfederationResult of the Weaknesses
Congress could not force the states to provide military troops.Congress could not draft soldiers to form a standing army.
Congress could not regulate commerce between the states or with other nations.Each state was free to set up its own system of taxes on goods imported from other states. Economic quarrels among the states broke out. Trading with other nations was difficult.
Congress could enter into treaties but could not enforce its agreements or control foreign relations.The states were not forced to respect treaties. Many states entered into treaties independently of Congress.
Congress could not issue paper money. Each state issued its own paper money; currencies among the states differed tremendously in value.
Congress could not directly tax the people. Congress had to rely on the states to collect and forward taxes, which the states were reluctant to do. The central government was always short of money.
Congress had no power to enforce its laws. The central government depended on the states to enforce its laws, which they rarely did.
Nine states had to approve any law before it was enacted. Laws were difficult to enact
Any amendment to the Articles required the consent of all thirteen states. I t was almost impossible to change the powers of the central government
There was no national judicial system. Most disputes among the states could not be settled by the national government
There was no executive branch. Coordinating the work of the central government was almost impossible
 

 16. 

Under the Articles of Confederation why was it hard to pass laws
a.
there was no congress
c.
the president was weak
b.
it took too many state votes to pass a law
d.
the president was too strong
 

 17. 

If Maryland had a dispute with Virginia, the central government could not help to settle the argument. Why?
a.
under the Articles of Confederation there was no court system
c.
the Treaty of Paris did not allow for disputes
b.
there was no army
d.
only the church could settle disputes
 
 
A Time of Crisis-The 1780S

The actual fighting during the Revolutionary War ended with the surrender of General Charles Cornwallis in Yorktown on October 18, 1781. Although peace with the British, formally achieved in 1783, may have been won, peace within the new nation was hard to find. The states bickered among themselves and refused to support the new central government in almost every way. The states also increasingly taxed each other's goods and at times even prevented trade altogether. As George Washington stated, "We are one nation today and thirteen tomorrow. Who will treat us on such terms?"

By 1784, the new nation was suffering from a serious economic depression. Banks were calling in old loans and refusing to give new ones. People who could not pay their debts were often thrown into prison. The tempers of angry farmers reached a boiling point in a well known event that occurred in August 1786-Shays's Rebellion.

 

 18. 

After the Revolutionary War was over, why did the states start bickering with each other.
a.
the state governments were too weak
c.
the states wanted the King to come into power
b.
the states did not like Great Britain
d.
the central government was too weak
 

 19. 

What was the final battle of the Revolutionary War
a.
Battle of Cornwallis
c.
Battle of Valley Forge
b.
Battle of Yorktown
d.
Shays Rebellion
 
 
Shays's Rebellion

Daniel Shays, along with approximately two thousand armed farmers, seized county courthouses and disrupted debtors' trials. Shays's men then launched an attack on the national government arsenal in Springfield, Massachusetts, where weapons were stored. The rebellion continued to spread and grow in intensity. It lasted into the winter, when it was finally stopped by the Massachusetts militia.

The revolt had an important effect. It frightened American political and business leaders and caused national government had to be created. That central government had to be strong enough to maintain order and to cope with the serious economic problems facing the nation.
 

 20. 

What was the main thing the Shay’s rebellion proved.
a.
the debt laws needed to be revised
c.
without a strong central government individual states could be overthrown
b.
the state governments were not providing enough services for their citizens
d.
Daniel Shay did not like the strong church in his state
 

 21. 

Shay’s rebellion caused concern throughout the colonies
a.
true
b.
false
 
 
The constitution that we live under today was written in Philadelphia at the Constitutional Convention. Before the Philadelphia convention, there was the Annapolis convention.

The Virginia legislature called for a meeting, or convention, of all of the states at Annapolis, Maryland, on September 11, 1786. Unhappy members of the Congress of the Confederation agreed. Five of the thirteen states sent delegates, two of whom were Alexander Hamilton of New York and James Madison of Virginia. Both of these men favored a strong central government. Thus, they were called nationalists. They persuaded the other delegates to issue a report calling on the states to hold a convention in Philadelphia in May of the following year for the following purpose:

to take into consideration the situation of the United States, to devise such further provisions as shall appear to them necessary to render the constitution of the Federal Government adequate to the exigencies of the Union.

The Congress of the Confederation at first was reluctant to give its approval to the Philadelphia convention. By mid-February 1787, however, seven of the states had named delegates to the Philadelphia meeting. Finally, on February 21, the Congress called on the states to send delegates to Philadelphia "for the sole and expressed purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation." That Philadelphia meeting became the Constitutional Convention
 

 22. 

Hamilton and Madison were in favor of
a.
a weak central government
c.
strong state governments
b.
a strong central government
d.
a return to rule under the king
 

 23. 

Why was the Philadelphia convention called by congress?
a.
to create a new constitution
c.
to elect a president
b.
to create a new court system
d.
to revise the Articles of Confederation
 

Matching
 
 
a.
There was no way for the government to issue money
f.
There was no way for congress to enforce the treaties it made with foreign governments. Also, Congress had no way to control foreign relations
b.
All of the states had to agree to any changes in the Articles of confederation
g.
In order to pass laws, nine states had to agree
c.
There was no direct taxes by the central government
h.
There was no way for Congress to regulate trade between the states or with foreign countries
d.
There was no President
i.
There was no national court system
e.
If the states did not want to provide troops to the central government, the did not have to.
j.
Congress could make laws but there was no way to make sure that everyone would obey them
 

 24. 

It was almost impossible to change the powers of the central government
 

 25. 

Each state was free to set up its own system of taxes on goods imported from other states. Economic quarrels among the states broke out. Trading with other nations was difficult.
 

 26. 

Laws were difficult to enact
 

 27. 

The central government depended on the states to enforce its laws, which they rarely did
 

 28. 

Most disputes among the states could not be settled by the national government
 

 29. 

Congress had to rely on the states to collect and forward taxes, which the states were reluctant to do. The central government was always short of money.
 

 30. 

Each state issued its own paper money; currencies among the states differed tremendously in value.
 

 31. 

Coordinating the work of the central government was almost impossible
 

 32. 

Congress could not draft soldiers to form a standing army.
 

 33. 

The states were not forced to respect treaties. Many states entered into treaties independently of Congress.
 



 
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